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Brief History of Iran

  •   Written by Sady Qavipisheh
  • Category: info
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Recent archaeological studies indicate that as early as 10,000 BC, people lived on the southern shores of the Caspian, one of the few regions of the world which according to scientists escaped the Ice Age. They were probably the first men in the history of mankind to engage in agriculture and animal husbandry.
The first country known as Iran was founded by Achaemenians, by unifying different tribes living there. Though the history of Iran is long and complex, its shape is determined by the rise and fall of successive dynasties - with intervals of chaos and confusion. The Persian Empire (founded by Cyrus the Great in 6th BC), the Macedonians, Parthians, the Sassanids, the Arabs, the Seljuks and Mongols, the Timurids and the Safavids, all held sway here at one time or another.
After the Arab conquest in the middle of the 7th century, the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism gave way to Islam. Persia continued to be overrun by foreign powers for another thousand years.
The Turkish Safavids belonged to a Sufi religious order and made Shiite Islam the official religion of Iran, undertaking a major conversion campaign of Iranian Muslims. The Safavid dynasty reached its height during the reign of Shah Abbas 1st (1587-I629). It was during his reign that Persia once again came to be known in Europe as a superpower, because it was the greatest opponent of the Ottomans, and their wars saved Europe, the Ottomans being too occupied on the east fighting Iran to make headway in the west.
In 18th-19th centuries Iran fall under the increasing pressure of European nations, particularly the Russian Empire and the Great Britain. The discovery of oil in early 1900s intensified the rivalry of the Great Britain and Russia for power over the nation. After the World War 1st Iran was admitted to the League of Nations as an original member.
In 1921 Reza Khan, an army officer, established a military dictatorship. He was subsequently elected hereditary Shah, thus ending the Qajar dynasty and founding the new Pahlavi dynasty.
In 1979 Iran's most important religious nation-wide uprising led by Ayatollah Khomeini, took place in protest to the so-called White Revolution. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution the same year, the shah was overthrown and Iran, officially renamed the Islamic Republic of Iran, became a theocratic state. The Constitution of 1979 designated Ayatollah Khomeini as the pious jurist or faqih (the policy guide and ultimate decision-maker). April 1, 1979 became the Islamic Republic Day.

 

Chronology Of Significant Events

  • Period
    Description
    1200 BC
    Zenith of Elamite Kingdom. Iron Age.
    844 BC
    First mention of Iranians in Assyrian texts.
    728 BC
    Rise of the Median Empire.
    6th century BC
    The Persian Achaemenid Empire is found.
    330 BC
    Alexander the Great invades Persia, collapse of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
    312 BC
    The Seleucid Greek Dynasty is founded.
    161-138 BC
    Set up of Parthian Empire.
    87 BC - 244 AD
    Decline of the Parthian Empire and the rise of Rome.
    224
    Sassanian Empire is founded.
    641
    The Arabs defeat the Iranians at Nihavend. Iran is formally annexed to the Arab Empire. The ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism gave way to Islam.
    744-749
    Shiite revolt led by Abu Muslem, to establish the Abbasid Caliphate.
    903-999
    Samanid dynasty in Khorasan.
    962-1040
    Ghaznavi dynasty rises in the east, challenging the Samanids.
    1037
    Seljuk Turks, originating from Oghuz tribes, invaded Iran.
    1073 - 1092
    Zenith of Seljuk power.
    1117-1157
    End of Seljuk rule in Iran.
    1219-1227
    Genghis Khan devastates Iran.
    1380-1393
    Timor conquiers Iran. Suspension of the Nestorian Church.
    1500
    Overthrow of the Timurids.
    1502-1524
    Foundation of Safavid dynasty. Conversion of Iran to Shiite Islam.
    1587-1629
    Zenith of Safavid power. Golden Age. Prosperity of Iran's art and culture.
  • 1736-1747
    Afsharid dynasty is founded.
    1750-1779
    Foundation of Zand dynasty.
    1795-1797
    Mohammad Qajar overthrows Zand dynasty and founds Qajar dynasty.
    1812
    Treaty of Gulistan. Iran cedes territories to Russia.
    1896-1906
    The Constitutional Revolution. Promulgation of the Constitution.
    1908
    Nationalist uprising.
    1909
    Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (later British Petroleum) formed.
    1924-1925
    Qajar dynasty overthrown and plans prepared to establish a republic, with Reza Khan as its President.
    1925-1941
    Proclamation of Reza Khan as Reza Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty.
    1943
    Tehran Conference (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin).
    1963
    Religious nation-wide uprising led by Ayatollah Khomeini, in protest to the so-called White Revolution.
    1967
    Coronation of Mohammad Reza.
    1971
    2500 anniversary of the Iranian Monarchy celebrated.
    1978-1979
    New waves of Islamic uprising all over Iran force Shah to flee the country.
    1 April, 1979
    The nation votes for the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Government under the leadership of the late Ayatollah Khomeini (1900-1989).
    1980 - 1988
    Iran - Iraq war
    1989
    Ayatollah Seyed Ruhollah Mustafavi, known as Musavi Khomeini, founder and leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran passes away on 03 June.Ayatollah Khamenei was elected as the new Leader of the country, and Hojjatol-Islam Rafsanjani as the new president of I.R.I.
    Finally after a series of presidents since then, the actual recently elected one is Mr Rouhanni.

Behinburg Missions

World Travel Iran” staff as one of the member of Behinburg Tour & travel Company Group aims to open an unveiled and real image of Iran to all interested travelers to Iran. In your trip to Iran we always promised from the  very beginning of the time to offer a superior level of service.

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